Analysis, discussion and main findings 6. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. Redoubt 2009. High-fluoride Hekla eruptions pose a threat to foraging livestock, especially sheep. , On 25 March 2010, while studying the eruption, scientists witnessed, for the first time in history, the formation of a pseudocrater during a steam explosion. In the months prior to the the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in southern Iceland, the Icelandic seismic network (SIL) recorded thousands of earthquakes within the volcano. This, with the abundant water-ice at the summit, aids in making lightning.. Instead, the police closed the road to Þórsmörk and the four-wheel-drive trail from Skógar village to the Fimmvörðuháls mountain pass, but these roads and trails were reopened on 29 March, though only for suitable four-wheel drive vehicles. Visual observations were greatly restricted due to cloud cover over the volcano, but an aeroplane of the Icelandic Coast Guard imaged eruptive craters with radar instruments. Cold water from melted ice quickly chilled the lava, causing it to fragment into highly abrasive glass particles that were then carried into the eruption plume. Sitemap . While tourism demand has increased by 12 percent per year on average over the past 10 years, the relatively slower pace of construction meant that supply took longer to adapt and only showed a growth rate of about five percent per year . The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull exposed residents in southern Iceland to continuous ash fall for more than 5 weeks in spring 2010. The most recent major eruptions occurred in 920, 1612, and from 1821 to 1823. The last eruption of Eyjafjallajökull before the 2010 events was an extended event lasting 14 months from 1821 December to 1823 January. The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland first began as a 500 m long fissure on 20 March 2010. Eruptions. The direction of the jet stream was unusually stable at the time of the eruption's second phase, continuously southeast. The flank and summit eruption 2010 5. The Icelandic flag carrier airline, Icelandair, seemed at first especially vulnerable, but managed to deal effectively with the eruption and subsequently published a detailed report about its actions and conclusions.  Seismic data showed that the frequency and intensity of earth tremors still exceeded the levels observed before the eruption, therefore scientists at the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) and the Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland (IES) continued to monitor the volcano. The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland on 20 March 2010 affected the economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world.. Sie sind hier: UHH > MIN-Fakultät > Fachbereich Geowissenschaften > Geophysik > Studium > Kolloquium/ Seminar > Geophysikalisches Seminar > Geophysikalisches Seminar > Mass Eruption Rate and Pulse Dynamics of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Eruption Unlike the earlier eruption phase, the second phase occurred beneath glacial ice. Aim: Volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters may affect survivor's physical and mental health. It was a bit smaller, around 300 m (980 ft) long according to witnesses, and lava coming from it started to flow into Hvannárgil canyon. Due to the distance from the radar to the eruption site as well as orographic blockage the radar cannot detect a volcanic plume, or clouds, below 2.9 km  At the end of December 2009, seismic activity began around the Eyjafjallajökull volcano area, with thousands of small earthquakes (mostly of magnitude 1–2 Mw), 7 to 10 km (4.3 to 6.2 mi) beneath the volcano. The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland first began as a 500 m long fissure on 20 March 2010. Shortly afterward, the water level returned to normal and water temperature decreased. The erupted products were fragmented material, the majority fine-grained airborne tephra. By way of comparison, the Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980 was rated as 5 on the VEI, and the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was rated as a 6. Conclusion: Exposure to volcanic ash may increase respiratory morbidity symptoms six months post eruption, but long-term consequences are still unknown. By the evening of 6 June 2010, a small, new crater had opened up on the west side of the main crater.  The thick layer of ash that had fallen on some Icelandic pastures and farms at Raufarfell had become wet and compact, making it very difficult to continue farming, harvesting, or grazing livestock..  Previous eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull have been followed by eruptions at its larger neighbour, Katla. Agriculture is important in this region of Iceland, and farmers near the volcano have been warned not to let their livestock drink from contaminated streams and water sources, as high concentrations of fluoride can have deadly renal and hepatic effects, particularly in sheep. Discussion: Six months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption our results indicate that the presence of volcanic ash is associated with two to three times higher recent upper airway symptom rates among the exposed population compared to the unexposed. , This volcanic activity so disruptive to air travel because of a combination of factors:. Leaky Caldron 09:44, 18 April 2010 (UTC) Consequences sounds good. During the initial flank eruption and the main summit eruption that followed, the rate of recorded earthquakes decreased significantly but remained high enough that the main eruption could be predicted and warnings issued. The eruption was in the form of ﬁre fountains and located to the east of the main Eyjafjallaj¨okull ice cap. , The Icelandic Food and Veterinary Authority released an announcement on 18 April 2010, asking that all horse owners who keep their herds outside be on the alert for ash fall. The resulting meltwater flowed back into the erupting volcano, which created two specific phenomena: The rapidly vaporising water significantly increased the eruption's explosive power. The magma discharge rate was about 300 cubic metres per second (11,000 cu ft/s) or 750 t/s.  By 21 May 2010, the second eruption phase had subsided to the point that no further lava or ash was being produced. Over time, the earthquakes rose towards the surface, and land near the volcano rose at least 40 millimeters (2 inches)—both indications that magma was moving underneath the volcano. The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was seen at the north slopes of Fimmvörðuháls mountain pass, lighting up the sky above the eruptive site.  On 23 March, a small vapour explosion took place, when hot magma came into contact with nearby snowdrifts, emitting a vapour plume which reached an altitude of 7 km (4.3 mi), and was detected on radar from the Meteorological Institute of Iceland. It erupted three times in 2010—on 20 March, April–May, and June. , After a short hiatus in eruptive activity, and a large increase in seismic activity 23:00 on 13 April and 1:00 on 14 April, a new set of craters opened early in the morning of 14 April 2010 under the volcano's ice-covered central summit caldera. Night image of Eyjafjallajökull erupting on April 24, 2010. Neither phase of the eruption was unusually powerful. After that, many further vapour explosions occurred. The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull exposed residents in southern Iceland to continuous ash fall for more than 5 weeks in spring 2010. However, the second phase of Eyjafjallajökull's eruption lasted longer than that of Mount Pinatubo. , No human fatalities were reported from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull.  In 1783, 79% of the Icelandic sheep stock were killed, probably as a result of fluorosis caused by the eruption of Laki. The temperature of Hruná river, which flows through the narrow Hrunárgil canyon, into which part of the lava stream was flowing, was recently recorded by geologists to be between 50 and 60 °C (122 and 140 °F), indicating that the river was cooling the lava in that canyon..  The presence and location of the plume depends upon the state of the eruption and the winds.  When rocks and other ejecta collide with one another, they create static electricity. Explosive activity from this new crater was observed with emission of small quantities of ash. These two erupting fissures shared the same magma chamber, according to geophysicists. An ash-loaded eruption plume rose to more than 8 km (5.0 mi), deflected to the east by westerly winds. The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallaj¨okull volcano in southern Iceland ﬁrst began as a 500 m long ﬁssure on 20 March 2010. Sign In to Email Alerts with your Email Address, Eyjafjallajökull 2010: Respiratory morbidity and symptoms following exposure to a volcanic eruption, Systemic inflammatory profile associated with exposure time to burning sugarcane, Clinico-radiological and functional assessment of respiratory symptomatics with either exposure to biomass fuel smoke or tobacco smoking, Burnt sugarcane harvesting is associated with short and long term alterations in systemic and pulmonary inflammatory markers, 6.2 Occupational and Environmental Health. Historical eruptions have been documented at Eyjafjallajökull in 920, 1612 and in the period from December 1821 till 1823, with each of these eruptions soon followed by or even overlapping with an eruption of nearby Katla volcano. An eruption began in South Iceland in late evening of 20 March 2010 at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system (also known as Eyjafjöll volcano – Global Volcanism Program Volcano number 1702-02=). In response to concerns that volcanic ash ejected during the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland would damage aircraft engines, the controlled airspace of many European countries was closed to instrument flight rules traffic, resulting in what at the time was the largest air-traffic shut-down since World War II. The volcanic event began in March of 2010 but activity only died down later in May. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The participation rate was ... GHQ-12) measured psychological morbidity. , By 26 February 2010, the global positioning system (GPS) equipment used by the Iceland Meteorological Office at Þorvaldseyri farm in the Eyjafjöll area (around 15 km (9.3 mi) south-east of the location of the recent eruption) had shown 3 cm of displacement of the local crust in a southward direction, of which a 1-cm displacement had taken place within four days. Previous airplane encounters with ash resulted in sandblasted windows and particles melted inside jet engines, causing them to fail. Late on 20 March 2010 an eruption began at Fimmvörðuháls, an area around 1,000 m elevation in a ~ 2-km-wide pass of ice-free land between Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull.  In Scotland, the number of phone calls to health services for respiratory and eye irritation did not rise significantly. Material (tephra) in the ice cauldrons around the volcanic vents: 30 million cubic metres (39,000,000 cu yd), Tephra filling the glacial lagoon of Gígjökulslón, carried by floods down the outlet, Airborne tephra that was carried to the east and south of the volcano, uncompacted tephra fallout from eruption plume: 100 million cubic metres (130,000,000 cu yd), This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 14:40. , Seismic activity started at the end of 2009 and gradually increased in intensity until on 20 March 2010, a small eruption began, rated as a 1 on the volcanic explosivity index.. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. As to why just the month, it's the way that … c) Describe the Lava flow produced by the eruption. An eruption began in South Iceland in late evening of 20 March 2010 at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system (also known as Eyjafjöll volcano – Global Volcanism Program Volcano number 1702-02=). MAIN FINDINGS 3.1 First indications of magma movements under Eyjafjallajökull were detected as early as 1992-1994, with increased seismicity followed by episodes of unrest with ground inflation and earthquakes in 1996 and 1999-2000.  The seismic activity continued to increase, and from 3 to 5 March, close to 3,000 earthquakes were measured having their epicentre at the volcano. Consequences of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption - with or without 2010. The eruption was in the form of fire fountains and located to the east of the main Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. , A fissure opened up about 150 metres (490 ft) in length running in a north-east to south-west direction, with 10 to 12 erupting lava craters ejecting lava at a temperature around 1,000 °C (1,800 °F) up to 150 m (490 ft) into the air. "Volcano tourism" quickly sprang up in the wake of the eruption, with local tour companies offering day trips to see the volcano. Eyjafjallajökull eruption 2010 - the role of IMO Sigrún Karlsdóttir, Guðrún Nína Petersen, Halldór Björnsson, Halldór Pétursson, Hróbjartur Þorsteinsson, Þórður Arason. The shutdown had a knock on impact on the economy and cultural events across Europe. The onset of the eruption was heralded on 20 March 2010 by the opening of an eruptive fissure at Fimmvorduhals, an area located between the Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull ice caps and bordering the Katla volcano, where the eruptive activity displayed mainly Hawaiian features until 12 April 2010. 10:00", "Experimental Acute Sodium Fluoride Poisoning in Sheep: Renal, Hepatic, and Metabolic Effects", "Ash from Iceland Volcano Endangers Horses", "Ash Fall Causes South Iceland Farmers Serious Trouble", "Iceland's volcanic ash halts flights across Europe | World news", "Articles < Seismicity < Icelandic Meteorological office", "University of Iceland reports and scientists' quotes", "A survey of early health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption in Iceland: a population-based study", "Health effects following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a cohort study", "Syndromic surveillance to assess the potential public health impact of the Icelandic volcanic ash plume across the United Kingdom, April 2010", "RAF grounds fighter jets after volcanic dust is found in engines | Home News | News", "Icelandair and the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption in 2010", "Dirty thunderstorm shoots lightning from volcano", The eruption that changed Iceland forever, "Volcano could mean cooling, acid rain: 'Not like Pinatubo' so far, but potential is there", "Icelandic volcano won't affect the world's climate", "Geologist Ari Trausti Guðmundsson answers Iceland volcano questions | IceNews – Daily News", "APOD: 19 April 2010 – Ash and Lightning Above an Icelandic Volcano", "The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines", Frequently Asked Questions on the Eruption in Iceland – from the Icelandic Met Office, BBC webpage with film of the volcano, taken from 500m from the crater's edge, by Chris Weber on 13 May 2010, Collection of Scientific Earth Observations and Models, Satellite evidence of hot lava flows from an Icelandic volcano (CIMSS Satellite Blog), Description of beginning of current eruption, (March 2010), Icelandic Met Office, Webpages and -links related to 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions. 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